No. 766,400 PATENTED AUG. 2, 1904, J. C. H. STUT.
PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING GAS AND COKE.
APPLIUATION FILED JULY 27, 1903 H0 MODEL. 3 SHEETS-SHEET 1.
a an ODDDDDDDII Vl jawsgcs- Duran 02? No. 766,400. .PATENTBD AUG. 2, 1904.
J. G. H. STUT.
PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING GAS AND COKE.
APPLIOATIOI rum) JULY 21, 1903.
H0 MODEL. 3 SHBETS-SHBET 2.
No. 766,400. PATENTED AUG. 2, 1904.
J. O. H. STUT.
PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING GAS AND 00KB.
Arrmoulon rum) JULY 27, 1003. no xonnn. gamma-sum 2.
W ess 5: r I 5mm ofifw r Patented August 2, 1904.
J O H N C H.
STUT, OF OAKLAND, CALIFORNIA.
PROCESS OF MANUFACTURiNG GAS AND COKE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 766,400, dated August 2, 1904.
Application tiled July 27, 1903- .":erial No. 167,122. No model.)
To (1.]! 10710111.- [f may (O/b81771.
Beit known that I, JOHN C. H. S'rU'r, a citireters at each end of the series, a regenerator in relation to each carbureter, and conductingpassages communicating with the several chambers, whereby air and steam may be passed alternately from one regenerator to the other through the interveningcarlmreters and ovens and over the fuel.
It is usual in apparatus of the above general type to convert the coal charge within the ovens into coke and intermittently to re cover gas from the charge while being coked, alternately heating or renewing the heat of the ovens and connecting-fines by the admission of atmospheric air above the body of coking coals, whereby a combustible mixture is formed with the evolved gases, then shutting off the air, so as to arrest comlmstion, and admitting steam into and through the ovens above the body of coking coal and re covering the gases produced from the coking coal and the decomposing steam, providing any steam is decomposed. It is common to admit oil to the ovens to produce oil-gas as well. The process is essentially a coking process, since theovens remain entirelyclosed during the gas-ma king periods, except for the admission of steam and oil above the fuel, and the heat in the ovens is entirely rover-berated heat, the ovens becoming, in fact, reverberatory furnaces. The shortcomings of this process incident to the furnace construction,wherein the heat. air, and steam can be applied only from above, are as follows:
First. The coking of the coal is very slow. because the furnace being of the reverberatonv type the heat provided for the coking comes onlyfrom the top and is produced by the consumption of the gases evolved from the coal.
Second. The production of any water-gas is dependent solely on the decomposition of the steam in the presence of whatever carbon may be in the gases above and evolving from the incandescent coal. By actual practice it is found that very little water-gas is thus formed, because the contact of the steam and gases is not sufficiently intimate, the amount of carbon present is inadequate, and, above all, the period of contact of the steam and gaseous carbon is not. sufficiently prolonged to cause the necessary chemical disruption of any considerable quantity of steam. It is well known that to produce water-gas the steam must be brought into the immediate presence of a surplus of incandescent carbon, (otherwise carbon dioxid instead of carbon monoxid will result,) and the period of contact should 'be prolonged sull'icicnt to give the steam a chance to be split up and liberate its oxygen.
Third. \Yhen oil is introduced into the ovens for the purpose of making oil-gas to be mixed with coal and water gas, there no way of regulating the proportion of these several gases. While oil-gas made from crude oils of asphaltum base is rich in illuminatimg power, it is generally too expensive when used by itself, but mixed with water-gas in proper proportions proves eminently satisfactory as an illuminant and is very much cheaper to the manufacturer and to the consumer. Inasmuch as so very little water-gas is actually generated under the above process, for the reasons just mentioned, the desired result is not ob tainable.
Fourth. Moreover, where oil is introduced as above a very heavy deposit of lampblack or fine carbon appears in the superheaters and carburetors, while still anotherconsiderable portion is carried off with the gas into the washer and lost. the heat that could be obtained from the combustion of this lost carbon being itself lost to the process.
The object of the present invention is todevise a system of heating the ovens and manipulating the fuel-supply so as to get the fullest elficiency from the ovens in the manufacture of coke and illuminating-gas. This object is obtainableby an apparatus wherein there is added to the general structure previously indicated means for introducing air or steam also from the bottom of the furnaces, whereby it may pass upwardly through the body of incandescent coal, and by observing certain conditions in the attention of the ovens and the government of the air, steam, and fuel supply, as will be more fully explained hereinafter, having reference to the accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a view showing a partial side elevation and exterior view, a partial section on line a; y of Fig. 2, and partial section on line t 7) Z r of Fig. 2. Fig. 2 is a view showing a plan of the left portion, a section adjacent thereto on lines R n 0 p of Fig. 1, and the remainder on lines (1 s of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a transverse section on lines f a d c of Fig. 1. Fig, 4is a horizontal section, one portion being taken on line A b and the remainder to the right of section Z 172 of Fig. 2.
For the purpose of illustration I have shown here a series of four ovens, (marked 1, 2, 3, and 4,) though it is obvious this number may be varied in practice, if desired.
5 and 6 are the carbureters or superheaters located at each side of the oven series, and 7 and 8 are regenerators located beyond the carbureters at each end and surmounted by respective stacks 9 10, having the respective dampers 11 12.
13 represents a washer, of which there is one at each end of the apparatus, although but one is here shown,
In the present case the ovens, carbureters, and regenerators are shown arranged side by side and the ovens separated from each other by Walls of fire-brick. The upper parts of the ovens and carbureters are connected by passages 14, and the bottoms of the carbureters and regenerators are connected by passage 15.
In the present invention the ovens are provided with hearths, perforated, as at 16, up through which air or steam may pass from the fines 17 which extend lengthwise of each oven.
18 is a main air-supply pipe extending over the top and outside of the ovens, from which air may be supplied to the ovens both above and below the fuel by means of the branch pipes 19 20, which open, respectively, into the fluid passages 21 above and between the ovens and into the ends of the flues 17. The pipes 19 20 are provided with suitable controlling-valves, (indicated at 20.) The regenerators have also branch air-pipes 22, leading from the air-main 18, and the passage of air through them is controlled by valves 23. Coal fuel is admitted to the ovens as needed through the top doors 24.
The ends of the ovens are closed by the main doors 25, provided with the smaller doors 26 to allow the operator to have access to spread a fresh charge of coal over the ovens. The
main doors are hung on swinging arms 27, as shown. Below the hearths are the doors 28,
which allow for the cleaning of the ovens.
The carbureters and regenerators are provided with respective doors 29 and 30.
The carbureters and regenerators have formed within them a checker-work of brick or the like, so laid as to form tortuous passages through which the gases from the ovens and the air admitted from pipes 22 are caused ing down through the checker-Work in one regenerator, up through the checker-work in the corresponding carbureter, and thence traversing the oven-space to mingle with the evolving gases from the fuel. In the present apparatus steam is also adapted to be admitted below each oven. as at 34, and to pass through the body of solid incandescent carbon above.
37 is the main gas-pipe leading from each regenerator to its respective washer and having a controlling-valve 38, while 39 is the outlet from the washer. t
The ovens, carbureters, and regenerators are inclosed in gas and air tight iron castings, as shown at 35 and 36. These castings are well riveted together and made air-tigh t, braced by backstays and tierod's in any suitable manner to resist the expansion and contraction due to the heat of the ovens. The latter are made of the very best of fire-brick.
The manufacture of gas by this apparatus, either under the old process or by my process, contemplates two periodstirst, the heating period, and, second, the gas-making period.
For the heating period coal or other fuel is fed as required into the charging-holes 24. The covers of these holes being then closed, the ovens are assumed to be hot. Supposing the operation be from left to right, damper 11 in stack 9 at the left will be closed and damper 12 at the right opened. Valves 38 in gaspipes 37 and also air-valve 23 in pipe 22 at the right will be closed; but air-valve 23 at the left will be opened, as likewise will be upper valves 20*, and if it is desired to heat up the ovens quickly lower valves 2O will be opened, though in the ordinary closed-bottom furnace air in the heating period and steam in. the gas-making period can only be admitted from above and allowed to pass over the fuel and never through the fuel. Air under pressure or by induced draft is introduced from the main supply-pipe 18. By induced draft is meant a draft which either results from high chimneys or from an exhauster that will draw the gases of combustion from the ovens by the production of a partial vacuum therein, whereas a forced draft produces a pressure within the ovens in excess of the atmospheric pressure. From the hot fuel the gases are now evolved. and these combine w1th the oxygen of the air. making gases of com- 1 bustion or waste gases. bustion pass through the openings it from The gases of comoven to oven to the top of the carbureters o l During this time the air-valve 23 in the pipe 1 of the right-hand regenerator will remain closed; but the air-valve 23 for the left-hand regenerator has been opened. The air then introduced into the lefthand regenerator will become highly heated in passing through the hot checker-work and will burn otl all the lampblack or fine carbon that has been deposited from the previous run of gas working from left to right. During this period of heating with the present construction of apparatus air under pressure might also be introd uced under any fuel in any oven in which it is not designed to produce coking, so as to heat up the ovens more quickly and to a higher temperature, and the heat from the ovens having this additional draft will be transmitted through the walls intermediate between said ovens and the contiguous coking-ovens upon each side. This produces a greater heat and also a heat upon each side as well as upon the top of the fuel, and the period necessary for coking is thus greatly reduced. It will be understood that the heat ing-fuel may be either gaseous. liquid,orsolid, and the coking material may either consist of the solid fuel, as coal. or the heavy crude pe troleum oil or residue therefrom, which also makes an excellent coke. As shown in the present drawings. the ovens 2 and -t contain coke, and the oven 1 is designed for the burning of oil or gas. while the oven 3 is tilled with coal above the fuel-level of ovens 2 and the surface only of the hotcoal. Any proportion of water-gas to the coal-gas can be made by regulating the amount of steam introduced through the lower part of the ovens and the depth of the hot coal above the hearth.
\l'hile a small quantity of water-gas may be produced by the steam from pipes 33 coming in at the top of the regenerators and striking the hot carbon or lampblackdeposit-ed on the cheeker-work and passing thence over the hot ovens. still by 'far the main portion of watergas is formed by the steam from pipes 34: coming from below and passing 11p through the body of incamlesrent fuel.
By introducing steam above and below the fuel in the ovens it is brought into intimate contact with all the fuel, both in a gaseous and in a solid state, so that the oxygen of the steam has ample opportunity to become united with the carbon, forming thereby carbon inonoxid and lrvdrogen or so-called water-gas. which mixes with the other gases produced and thence passing through the highly-heated carbureters and regenerators to become lixed.
As the coal and water gases pass through the openings between the ovens they may be brought iutocontaet with oil. which is introduced over the fuel in the ovens and. if nec- 4: so that the single a aratus mav illus-:
trate each part of the operation. As soon as the ovens have been properly heated all the air-valves to the ovens. carbureters. and regenerators are closed. Also the stack-valve 12 and the gas-valve 38 on the right are opened. This brings us to the gas-making period. Coalgas is now evolving from the heated coal in i the difi'erent ovens. The steam-valve on the top of the regenerator T is opened and also in the the hearths of those ovens that are not being used for coking. By opening these latter valves the steam is admitted and caused to pass through a large body of white-hot coal or other fuel. and the steam is here decomposed. so that what is termed water-gas is formed in much larger quantities than can possibly be produced by the passage of the steam over present apparatus the steam-valve under essary. also into the carbureters. This oil also is vaporized. and by its contact with the hot coal in the ovens and the passage through the hot brick checker-work in the carburetor and the regenerator the gas is tixed and rendered permanent with the other gases. The oil introduced into the carburetors is for the purpose of enriching the mixture gel'ierated in the ovens.
Some lampblack or line carbon will always be deposited from the heavier oils, and to save this depos1tion of carbon and also to retain the greater portion of heat that is in the illuminating-gases and in the gases of combustion formed during the heating period the regenerators are made very high and with a large amount of brick checker-work in them. This provides a large body to retain the heat and a large surface for the deposit of carbon.
\Vhen the gases have passed up and through the regenerators. they discharge through the gasvalve at- 3b and into the washer '1 l, as previously stated, and from the washers to the scrubbers. puritiers. &c., in the same manner as in other gasworks.
After a certain period of operation in one direction the ovens will cooldown somewhat, and as soon as this occurs the gas-making will c ase. At this point thoheatingof the ovens must be again etlccted; but this time the heating will take place from the opposite end or, as at present described, from right to left, be-
cause the carbon andl tat deposits are now located in the right-hand regenerator. This heating process is carried on in exactly the same manner as previously described when the operation takes place from left to right,
and it is therefore not necessary to repeat it here.
By means of the apparatus herein described I am enabled to perform several different operations with practically no change further than to observe certain conditions of fuel, air, and steam feed. Thus I may manufacture gas from coal, oil, and steam, or, secondly, I may make oke and gas from coal, oil, and steam, or, thirdly, 1 may make coke and water-gas and oil-gas from crude oil, or, fourth, oil-gas and water-gas may be made from crude oil and steam without the production of coke. These results may be effected as follows:
First. If an operation is to be carried on for making a mixture of coal-gas, oil-gas, and water-gas only, the oven 4, as shown in the drawings, will contain some hot coal. On the top of this coal fresh green coal will be introduced, and this coal will give ofi coal-gas. Of course it is understood that the air above and below has been shut off to all the ovens. Oven 3 will be already full of incandescent coal, and underneath this coal steam will be introduced. This steam passing through the thick layer of hot carbon will liberate watergas, as previously described, and crude oil being introduced on the top of ,this hot carbon the oil will make oil-gas. The three gases- 4;. a, the oil-gas and waterfgas of oven3 and the coal-gas of oven 4-thus produced combine, and passing over the hot-brick checker-work in the carbureter 6 and regenerator 8 will become a fixed gas. After a considerable period of gas-making and heating, as above described, the gas-making will cease and another charge of fresh coal may be introduced into the oven3 to fill it up to the level of oven 4 at the beginning of the operation. During the previous gas-making period the coal in the oven 3 has been gradually consumed until the top will stand at aboutthe same level as the hot coal in oven 4 stood at before the charge of green coal when the process commenced. The operation in the ovens is reversed, and steam may now be introduced under the hot coal of the oven 4, and water-gas will be produced in this oven, and coal-gas will be produced from the oven 3, the latter being suitably charged with green coal, the oil being introduced at this stage into the oven 4, as was previously described for 3. It will thus be seen that any two ovens can be used in such a manner as to alternately make coal-gas, water-gas, and oil-gas, and produce no coke, for all the carbon is consumed in the gas-making and heating process.
Second. With the ovens 3 an 4 in the condition first described that is, the oven 4 having a small quantity of coal and the oven 3 being full of coalcoke may be produced in the oven 4 and a mixture of coal-gas, oil-gas,
and water-gas also produced as follows: During the heating period the valves for the admlssion of air or steam under the hearth of oven 4 will be closed; but air will be admitted over all the ovens, but only under the coal in oven 3 to give a quick and strong heat. This heat will be transmitted through the wall between ovens 3 and 4. thus adding the heat through the sides df the body of coke in addition to that which is applied from above during the operation, and this very materially reduces the time necessary to produce coke. After the body of coal in oven 3 has been heated to the desired point of incandescence and air under and over all ovens cut OH to discontinue combustion steam will be introduced under the oven 3 and water-gas will be made in this oven, while the oil will be delivered upon the top of the coal of the same oven to produce oil-gas. The coking of the coal in oven 4 throws off the coal-gas, and these three gases become fixed in the carbureter and the regenerator, wherein the surplus carbon and heat will also be deposited. If it is desired to produce any oil-gas in addition to that which may be produced as heretofore described, it
may be effected by introducing oil into either of the carbureters, as required- It will thus be seen that any two alternate ovens can be used to make any proportion of the three gases and a good hard coke, because every alternate oven being charged with the highly-heated coal will produce a large amount of heat to be transmitted through and over the walls for the coking of the coal in the adjacent oven.
Third. 1f the oven 4 has a small amount of solid fuel, preferably coal, oil may be introduced upon the top of this coal through the openings 31 at either end of the oven. This oil will liberate oil-gas, and the residue will remain on the top of the layer of solid fuel, and when the coking is to take place this will form the very best hard coke. In this case oven 3 having some hot coal, oil may also be introduced upon the top of this coal; but steam will also be introduced. under the hearth, and water-gas and oil-gas will be formed in this oven. These gases from oven 3 mix with the oil-gas arising from oven 4 and are all transmitted to the carbureter 6 and the regenerator 8 to be fixed as hereinbefore described, thus making water-gas and oil-gas and producing coke in the alternate oven.
Fourth. The operation of making watergas and oil-gas from crude oil without making coke will be carried on as just described for the third method, except that the ovens will change off alternately for the introduction of air and steam under the hearth for heating purposes and for the making of the wa-' ter-gas, so as to consume all the coke for the purpose of making water-gas. if oven 4 is gradually filled with coke produced from the successive introduction of crude oil and the coke produced from the crude oil in the oven 3 is gradually consumed in the water and oil gas making then the introduction of air and steam for heating and gas-making IIO For instance,
will be changed from underneathoven 3 to oven 41, the process being repeated, as pre viously stated.
In all these operations where coke is to be made in some ovens and not in others I. avail myself not only of the reverberated heat from the cokingovens, but in addition thereto 1 use the heat that is diffused through the walls of the non-cokingovens in which an intenser heat is generated by reason of the upward draft through the fuel. The coking process is thereby greatly expedited. Since in all these operations some of the ovens are thus actively engaged both in generating gas and produc ing fresh heat simultaneously, the actual gasmaking period of the whole apparatus is prolonged over what it would be were no air admissible at the bottom of the ovens. (lonsequently it that an increased gas-making capacity is claimed .for the apparatus in addii tion to its advantages of gas-supply control 1 previously specified.
It is to be noted that during the heatingperiod air is introduced over the fuel in all the ovens, so that heat can he produced by the consumption of the gases arising from the fuel; but air is only introduced underneath those ovens that are not used for coking purposes. During the gas making period steam is introduced from the top of the regenerator over all the fuel in all the ovens, whereas steam is onlyintroduced underneath those ovens that are not used for coking purposes. Thus, for example, in operation 3 during the heating period air was introduced over all the ovens, but only under oven 3 or ovens 3 and 1, since in oven l or ovens i and 1 2 coke was to be produced. making steam was introduced under the hearth of oven 3 or ovens 2-) and 1 to produce water-gas and oil-gas, but not under oven 4:
or ovens t and 2, as the case might be where 3 During the 'asi s... 11 1 the entire battery was in operation, for while .I
have described each of thescoperations in reference to ovens 2) and i only it is obvious that I what is true of oven relative to oven & would be true of ovensl and 3 relative to ovensland iand the operations between these pairs would alternate just as between single ovens. in fact, it is desired to work the ovens in pairs and alternately to charge one pair above the fuel-level of the others and secure all the advantages of heat diffusion through the walls to heat the intervening coking ovens.
This heat diffusion by radiation and the alternate action of the ovens are important considerations in my invention.
Having thus described my invention. what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Pat of coal to incandescence within a chamber by passing air simultaneously over said coal and through said coal from below, heating a body of coking-coal in a closed bottom contiguous chamber by heat passing through the walls from the lirst-named chamber whereby coalgas is evolved from the coking-coal, then cutting off the air from the lirst-nained chamber and passing steam through the coal therein from below and transmitting the water-gas thus formed to mix with the gas arising from the coking-cord and afterward lixing and delivering the mixed gas.
2. The process of manufacturing coke and gas. said process consisting in heating a body of coal to iucandescence within a containingchamher by passing air over the fuel and therethrough from below, then shutting off the supply of air, supplying a body of crude oil upon the surface of said coal whereby oilgas is produced and a residue remains upon the coal, introducing steam from below whereby water-gas is produced and mixed with the oil-gas at the surface of the coal, heating a body of coking-coal, contained in an oven contiguous to the first-named oven, by heat transmitted through the walls between said ovens whereby coal-gas is evolved from the coking-coal, mixing the three gases and transmitting them to a fixing-chamber, then reversing the operation by lilling the cokingoven with fresh coal and coking in the lirstnamed oven, passing steam through the second chamber and supplying oil upon the surface of the fresh coal whereby coke is formed from the coal and oil residue of the first-named chamber and coal-gas produced therefrom to unite with the water and oil gas transmitted from the second chamber.
3. The process of manufacturinggas and coke simultanemisly consisting in producing oil and water gas from a body of incandescent coal in one oven by admitting steam thereto and then admitting oil to said oven, and simultaneously forming coke from a body of coal and oil residue in a contiguous oven by the heat transmitted from the first-named oven to the second oven through the intermediate walls.
:1. The process of manufacturing gas and coke consisting in heating bodies of coal and coking-coal in contiguous ovens and alternately passing air and steam over the surface of the fuel in said ovens and through said fuel from below, whereby through the agency of the air heat is transmitted through the walls intermediate between the two chambers, and by the agency of the steam water-gas is evolved, then i'nixiug this gas with the coalgas evolved and afterward reversing the process and making coke and coal-gas in the firstnamed furnace and water-gas in the second.
i The. process of mamlfacturing gas and' l coke consisting in first producing oil-gas from crude oil in one of a series of parallel contiguous ovens by heating a body of coal to incandescence and then admitting the oil therei to, and producing coal-gas and coke from the other of said ovens from a body of incandescent coal and oil residue, then reversing the process and making oil-gas inthe second of said ovens and producing coke in the firstnamed oven.
6. The process of manufacturing gas and coke consisting in introducing air over the fuel in all the ovens to cause a combustion of the waste gases and also introducing it beneath those ovens which are not used for coking purposes then shutting off the air. admitting oil to the non-coking ovens and admitting steam over all the fuel in all the ovens and introducing steam underneath those ovensin which no coking is going on.
7 The process of manufacturing gas and coke consisting in charging a series of ovens with fuel, introducing air beneath some and over all of said ovens to cause combustion of the waste gases and to heat the fuel to incandescence, then shutting ofi the air above and below the fuel, and introducing steam beneath some of the ovens to generate water-gas which combines with the gas generated in the other ovens.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand'in presence of two subscribing Witnesses.
JOHN C; H. STUT.
S. H. NoURsE, JEssIE C. BRODIE.